Tariff’s on wafers, cells and modules imported from China are in vogue these days. In June, the European Commission imposed tariffs in a graduate fashion with an 11.8% tariff beginning on June 6 and a 47.1% tariff beginning on August 6.  The reason for the two-step process is to encourage the government of China to negotiate. Commentary:  With the loss of several industry pioneers as well as startup PV technology companies of varying degrees of potential (from zero potential through mildly interesting to possibly groundbreaking) the damage of too-low prices for PV c-Si technology is already done. It might have been possible to mitigate the cost of aggressive pricing several years ago. Unfortunately, when the current period of underpricing began it was termed (by everyone) as progress towards grid parity.  Business entities and the individuals that make up these concerns on all spectrums of the PV value chain have been affected by too low prices and/or tariffs. Current module prices do not leave any room for R&D (innovation) and sadly, in some cases quality control.